I/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ KẾT QUẢ (result)
1. SO + adj/adv + THAT + clause
SUCH + noun + THAT + clause (trong văn nói có thể lược bỏ THAT)
– He was SO tired THAT he went to bed early.
– It was SUCH a difficult exam (THAT) he knew he wouldn’t pass it.
2. SO + clause
– It was late, SO he decided to take a taxi home.
3. AS A RESULT, CONSEQUENTLY có thể dùng để mở đầu câu.
AND, AS A RESULT được dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề trong một câu.
– We have invested too much money in this project. CONSEQUENTLY, we are in financial difficulties.
– His wife left him, AND/AS A RESULT, he became very depressed.
4. THEREFORE thường được dùng ở giữa câu (ngoài ra cũng có thể dùng ở đầu hoặc cuối câu)
– We feel, THEREFORE, that a decision must be made.
II/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ LÝ DO (reason)
1. SINCE/AS/SEEING THAT + clause (đứng trước mệnh đề chính)
– SEEING THAT/SINCE/AS we arrived late, all the best seats had been taken.
2. BECAUSE + clause (đứng sau mệnh đề chính)
– We couldn’t find a good seat BECAUSE all the best ones had been taken.
3. BECAUSE OF/AS A RESULT OF/OWING TO/DUE TO + noun/noun phrase.
– We were unable to go by train BECAUSE OF the rail strike.
– Many of the deaths of older people are DUE TO heart attacks.
III/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ MỤC ĐÍCH (purpose)
1. (NOT) TO/IN ODER (NOT) TO/SO AS (NOT) TO + verb nguyên mẫu
Notice: trong văn viết (formal) không nên dùng (NOT) TO
– We came to the countryside TO find some peace and quiet.
– Handle the flowers carefully IN ORDER NOT TO damage them.
2. SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT + clause (thường dùng can, could, might, would)
– He chose this university SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT he could study Physics.
IV/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ SỰ ĐỐI LẬP (contrast)
1. ALTHOUGH/EVEN IF/EVEN THOUGH + clause (even though chỉ dùng trong văn nói)
– ALTHOUGH/EVEN IF/EVEN THOUGH the car is old, it is still reliable.
2. DESPITE/IN SPITE OF + noun/noun phrase/V_ing
DESPITE THE FACT THAT/IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT + clause
– DESPITE/IN SPITE OF the rain, I went for a walk.
– We enjoyed our walking holiday DESPITE THE FACT THAT/IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT it was tiring.
3. HOWEVER + clause
THOUGH thường dùng trong văn nói, và đứng ở cuối câu.
– Buying a house is expensive. It is, HOWEVER, a good investment.
– It’s a big decision to make, THOUGH.
4. BUT/WHILE/WHEREAS thường dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề trong câu.
– John is very rich BUT/WHILE/WHEREAS his friends are extremely poor.
5. ON THE ONE HAND/ON THE OTHER HAND dùng cho một cặp câu diễn tả 2 ý trái ngược nhau.
– ON THE ONE HAND these computers are expensive. ON THE OTHER HAND they are exactly what we want.
V/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ THỜI GIAN
1. WHEN/WHILE/AS/AFTER + clause
– WHEN/WHILE/AS I was driving along the road, I saw a terrible accident.
– He went out AFTER he’d finished work.
2. WHENEVER/EVERY TIME + clause
– WHENEVER/EVERY TIME I see him, he’s driving a different car.
3. FIRST/THEN/LATER etc. dùng để giới thiệu những mốc thời gian.
– FIRST he closed all the windows, THEN he locked the doors. LATER he came back to check that everything was all right.
4. DURING/ALL THROUGH/THROUGHOUT + noun phrase.
– DURING/ALL THROUGH the summer we get a lot of visitors.
– It rained heavily THROUGHOUT the night.
VI/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ ĐIỀU KIỆN (condition)
1. EVEN IF/AS LONG AS/UNLESS + clause
– EVEN IF you are born rich, life is still difficult.
– You can borrow the car AS LONG AS you’re careful with it.
– You can’t come with me UNLESS you promise to keep quiet.
2. WHETHER… OR NOT được dùng làm câu hỏi gián tiếp.
Sau giới từ và/hoặc trước động từ TO V chúng ta sử dụng WHETHER chứ không dùng IF.
– I don’t know WHETHER you have met him OR NOT.
– It depends ON WHETHER the government takes any action.
– The organizers will decide WHETHER TO IMPOSE fines.
3. IN CASE + clause
IN CASE OF + noun (dùng trong văn viết)
– Take this umbrella IN CASE it rains.
– IN CASE OF emergency, break the glass.
VII/ LIÊN TỪ DÙNG ĐỂ THÊM THÔNG TIN HOẶC NHẤN MẠNH
1. BESIDES/IN ADDITION (TO THAT)/FURTHERMORE + clause (đứng sau mệnh đề chính). Trong văn viết nên dùng FURTHERMORE.
MOREOVER được dùng ở đầu hoặc giữa câu nhằm đưa thêm thông tin.
– I don’t really want to go out tonight. BESIDES, there’s a good film on TV.
– We are still waiting for the goods we ordered three months ago. FURTHERMORE, we have been overcharged for our last order.
– This theory about the origins of the universe is new. It is, MOREOVER, extremely interesting.
2. NOT ONLY… BUT ALSO/AS WELL
Notice: BUT ALSO + noun/noun phrase; BUT + S + V + ALSO
NOT ONLY khi đứng đầu câu sẽ mang ý nghĩa nhấn mạnh, sử dụng cấu trúc này cần đảo ngữ cho vế NOT ONLY và vế còn lại sẽ dùng BUT + S + V + ALSO.
– The painting is NOT ONLY valuable BUT ALSO a work of art.
– She NOT ONLY writes novels BUT (she) lectures AS WELL.
– The house was NOT ONLY large BUT (was/it was) ALSO modern.
– NOT ONLY is the restaurant superb BUT it is ALSO expensive.
3. AS WELL AS + noun/phrase/V_ing
– They robbed a bank AS WELL AS a post office.
– AS WELL AS being sent to prison, they were fined $2000.
4. TOO/AS WELL/NOT EITHER thường dùng trong văn nói, và đặt ở cuối mệnh đề phụ.
– They like Indian food. I like Indian food TOO/AS WELL.
– They aren’t very generous people. They have NOT got any friends EITHER.